This project requires a sequence of five separate but overlapping phases of activity:
The Local Government DSS will be trained by For Those In Need staff to recruit and develop training
of the project teams, to assess and screen OVC, to develop and implement services, and to develop and monitor a program evaluation process.
The proposed project is different from what has already been put in place to serve OVC in Botswana, in that it focuses on providing in-home mental health, developmental and wellness supports for OVC who have been traumatized by the loss of parents who died of Aids. It also sets up a system to assess OVC needs and design individual service plans that allow for staff to provide individualized psychosocial and developmental supports and rehabilitation for OVC in underserved Botswana communities.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) report for Congress published in February 2005 is particularly helpful in illustrating the problem we are trying to address. That report points out that the psychological and psychosocial impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is often being overlooked at this point in time. The report is able to cite only three relatively small projects that exist, and one of these is in Zimbabwe. Each of these programs reflects the humane mission, vision and dedication of the participating organizations and individuals involved. However, they do not represent a coordinated effort to build the national systems and infrastructure that will be required in order for Botswana to fully address the HIV/AIDS crisis in a manner consistent with its national vision, as described in Botswana's National Vision 2016.
The CRS report also points out the serious negative impact on school performance of the epidemic. Our impression from our contacts in Botswana is that this reduced school performance is a function of significant increases in secondary factors such as developmental, mental health and social support issues. These factors, if not fully addressed, could not only rob Botswana of tens of thousands of potentially productive citizens, it could burden the nation with a large population of citizens who will require ongoing state support and assistance for the rest of their lives. Small charitable programs and projects that rely mostly on volunteers and that operate from their own missions will not prevent this, nor will they enable Botswana to achieve its national vision.
The other programs working on the OVC situation appear to focus largely on the development of medical and educational interventions to address the specific behavioral, informational and cultural issues that underlie the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Obviously these are critical components of intervention, and the project we propose would coordinate with and extend these efforts. It is clear that these current projects are insufficient to address the scope of Botswana's need. For instance, the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Center for Excellence is recognized for its state-of-the-art collaborative work. It is also reported to serve 1,200 HIV/AIDS infected children and over 200 families. While this is a substantial achievement, it represents only a small fraction of the rapidly growing OVC population.
What For Those In Need envisions is an ambitious project that, in a matter of a few years, will expand and result in the development of a coordinated national infrastructure for psychosocial, developmental and wellness intervention in Botswana. The OVC project proposed by our agency yields a national force of trained professionals within Botswana that would put the nation into a leadership role throughout the world in addressing the ravages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. At the same time, the project assists Botswana to achieve its national vision of becoming an educated, prosperous, productive, compassionate and innovative nation that is capable of independently sustaining its development and implementation of effective service systems.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction PAGE
1.1 Botswana National Vision 2016 6
1.1.1 Review of Current OVC Reports
1.1.2 Implications of Vision for Services
1.2 Impact of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic 8
1.2.1 General Population Projections
1.2.2 OVC Population Projections
1.2.3 A Nation in Grief
1.2.4 Implications for Staffing of Services
1.2.5 Implications for Service Models
1.3. Programs for OVC 10
1.3.1 Description of Current OVC Supports
1.3.2 Scope & Impact of Current Programs
1.3.3 Summary of Needs
220.127.116.11. Assessment & Screening of OVC
18.104.22.168. Development & Implementation of Services & Supports
22.214.171.124. Staff Training, Development & Support
126.96.36.199. Oversight & Evaluation of Systems
1.3.4 Scope & Structure for Intervention
1.3.5 Required Supports for the Intervention
1.3.6 Funding: From Charity to Autonomy
2. Purpose Of The Pilot Project
2.1 Towards a National Vision 13
2.2 Perspectives 13
2.2.1. Vulnerable Children & Their Caretakers
2.2.2. Current Professionals and Staff
2.2.3. Government & Taxpayers
2.3 Timeframes for Implementation 14
2.3.1 The Pilot Project
2.3.2 Long Term Structure
2.3.3 Budget Timelines
3. or Those In Need's Strategic Approach
3.1 Project Mission & Goals 15
3.2 Agency Background & Resources 17
3.3 Strategies: Towards Cultural Competence 19
3.3.1 Partnering with Local Businesses
3.3.2 Integrating with Existing Systems
3.3.3 Development of Training & Support Structures
3.3.4 QA Structure of Ongoing / Research & Development
3.4 Initiatives ï¿½ Short Term 21
3.4.1 In-home Psycho-Social Model
3.4.2 Developmental Intervention
3.4.3 Wellness Model
3.5 Pilot Project 25
3.6 Initiatives ï¿½ Long Term 25
3.6.1 Extending The Models
3.6.2 Building National Systems Goals
3.6.3 Specific Partnerships
4.1 Strategic Goals & Performance Measures 26
4.2 Quality Assurance Goals 27
4.3 National Outcome Measures 28
4.4 Timelines 29
Botswana's Vision 2016 began in August 1996 with a nine person Presidential Task Group. These capable individuals produced a booklet entitled A Framework for a Long Term Vision for Botswana. The Vision 2016 is available on Botswana's national website, and it is briefly presented below with its underlying principles.
The ultimate goal of the proposal outlined here is to assist the Batswana in achieving this vision as it is reflected in the welfare of and services to orphans and vulnerable children (OVC).
Botswana National Vision 2016
Botswana will be an educated and informed nation. All people will be able to have good quality education that is adapted to the needs of the country. Schooling will be universal and compulsory to the secondary level. Good quality vocational and technical training will be available at secondary level and beyond as an alternative to academic study. Entrepreneurship and business skills will be an integral part of all schooling. No student will be disadvantaged by ethnic origin, gender, language or remoteness of settlement. Botswana will be in the forefront of information technology with state of the art computer and communications equipment, and will play a full part in the coming information age. All people will have access to telephones, national newspapers, radio and television services, and to computer equipment. Information about the operations of Government or other organisations will be freely available to all citizens.
By the year 2016, Botswana will be a prosperous, productive and innovative nation. Batswana will be a hard working and disciplined people with a diversified economy. Agriculture, industry, mining and services will be productive and vital components of economic activity.
Batswanaï¿½s development will be sustainable, and will take account of the preservation of the environment and renewable resources. Incomes in Botswana will have been raised closer to those in developed nations. All Batswana. male and female will have the opportunity of paid employment, access to good quality housing, as well as increased resource ownership.
By the year 2016, Botswana will be a compassionate and caring nation. Income will be distributed equitably. Poverty will have been eradicated, and there will be an efficient social safety net for those who suffer misfortune. All Batswana will have access to good quality health services, sanitation and nutrition. The negative impact of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana will have been halted and reversed.
By the year 2016, Botswana will be a safe and secure nation. Violent crime will have been eliminated, and there will be full protection of individual rights. Batswana will have confidence in law enforcement agencies, and standards of road safety will be high. The people and borders of Botswana will be protected by a small, disciplined and accountable national defense force.
By the year 2016, Botswana will be an open, democratic and accountable nation. There will be a system of decentralized democracy and political tolerance. Civil society will play a full part in the development of the country, alongside government. The nationï¿½s leaders will be open and accountable to the people. The role of traditional leaders will have been enhanced. Freedom of expression as well as press freedom will be fully protected.
By the year 2016, Botswana will be a moral and tolerant nation. There will be high standards of personal morality, and tolerant social attitudes towards people of different cultures, ethnic traditions, religions or disabilities.
By the year 2016, Botswana will be a united and proud nation, sharing common ideals, goals and symbols. Society will be under-pinned by resilient family values with a strong sense of tradition and pride in its history.
Review of Current OVC Supports
In a 2004 comprehensive review of literature about OVC interventions in Botswana,
Zimbabwe and South Africa, the author indicated that among the important lessons learned is that the principle interventions should be home based and community supported. The proposed project embodies this model of service. (Anna Strebel, The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Interventions for the Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe, HSRC Publishers, 2004).
Implications of Vision for Services
The large and growing population of OVC epitomizes Botswana's need to develop a
national strategy and infrastructure for providing services to its citizens. With over 30,000
OVC already identified, many of the key concepts of Vision 2016 are already challenged.
ï¿½ The population of OVC presents significant learning problems due to their high incidence of mental health and developmental issues. In order to allow the OVC to become part of an educated, informed nation, these issues must be addressed.
ï¿½ Unless the problems of the OVC are successfully resolved, a substantial portion of this population is at risk for being unable to contribute to a prosperous, productive and innovative nation. Instead, they may become a permanent fiscal burden to the nation.
ï¿½ In order to be a compassionate and caring nation, Botswana will require an effective national infrastructure for addressing the needs of its vulnerable citizens.
ï¿½ In order to achieve an open, democratic and accountable nation, Botswana's infrastructure will require the development of a science-based oversight system so that the scope and effectiveness of national services can be objectively measured.
ï¿½ Many of the OVC are currently presenting forms of disability. A moral and tolerant nation must address the needs of such individuals in a manner that reflects national policy.
ï¿½ For those OVC who have lost their families, the achievement of resilient family values and a strong sense of tradition and pride will require significant intervention.
Impact of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic
General Population Projections
According to recent government estimates, the population of Botswana is estimated to be about 1,640,000. The current average life expectancy is about 34 years, and the yearly mortality rate exceeds the birth rate by about 9 people per 1,000, or almost a 15,000 person loss per year.
OVC Population Projections
At the same time that the general population is declining in Botswana, it is also getting
younger. Children under 14 years constitute almost 40% of the general population, and
the OVC represent a quickly growing portion of this child population. Similarly, the
population of elders and mature adults who can guide and teach the youth is declining.
According to a report from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies report entitled Southern Africa Regional Programmes and National Society
Capacity Building: Federation Secretariatï¿½s support strategy 2006-2007, serious gaps
in psychological and social support have been identified in Botswana. The Botswana
Red Cross society provided the following statistics:
The incidence of developmental and behavioral disabilities appears to be growing,
and the cultural integrity and values of the youth are at increased risk.
Number of children who have lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS
A Nation in Grief
The adult prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is reported to be about 37%, with over 350,000 adults living with HIV/AIDS. Few individuals in Botswana have not been directly affected by this devastation. The entire nation is in grief; the very teachers and social service professionals who must help the OVC to deal with loss, grief and depression must also cope with their own and that of their family members.
Implications for Staffing of Services
Any national program to assist the OVC will require that the staff members who implement the program also receive a program of support for their grieving. Since the population to be served is quite large, recruitment and training will be a major requirement.
Implications for Service Models
The number of mature and trained professionals in Botswana who are available now to address the service needs of the OVC is inadequate. A massive training effort will need to be initiated in order to implement a comprehensive service model, preferably in coordination with a Botswana University. Substantial outside assistance may be needed in the early stages, but should be faded as Botswana's capacity and expertise develops. Any new cost effective service model will need to be culturally efficient, in that it will use existing structure and resources to reach the OVC whenever possible. Likewise, it must be carefully coordinated with other related national, local and charitable efforts. Part of the OVC intervention should be to provide cultural guidance, since the loss of parents can result in weak acculturation, a phenomenon that can in turn undermine cognitive development and behavioral health. A data-based oversight system will need to be developed in order to track the scope and effectiveness of service provision.
Programs for OVC
There are currently a variety of admirable efforts to assist OVC in Botswana that have been published These programs appear to focus largely on the development of medical and educational interventions to address the specific informational and behavioral issues that underlie the spread of HIV/AIDS. Obviously this is a critical component of intervention, and the project we propose would coordinate with and extend these efforts. However, few existing projects appear to be aimed at mitigating the developmental and mental health impact of the HIV/AIDS crisis.
Description of Current OVC Supports
There are OVC projects that are already under way by Ministry of Local Government (MLG), Baylor University, Ministry of Health, Hope Worldwide, and others. Research on the findings, concerns and accomplishments of existing programs will be important to the development of an implementation plan for the project proposed below.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) report for Congress published in February 2005 is particularly helpful in illustrating the problem that this new project is designed to address. That report points out that the psychological and psychosocial impact of the HIV//AIDS epidemic is often overlooked and is able to cite only three relatively small projects that exist to address these issues, one of which is in Zimbabwe.
Each of these programs reflects the humane mission, vision and dedication of the participating organizations and individuals involved. However, they are relatively small in scope and do not contribute to the kind of service infrastructure implied in Botswana's National Vision 2016.
The CRS report also cites the serious negative impact on school performance of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is likely that this observation of impaired academic performance reflects a growing incidence of factors such as developmental disability and mental illness in the OVC population.
Scope & Impact of Current Programs
Current projects and programs appear to be rather small in comparison to the scope of the psychosocial problems faced by OVC. For instance, the Botswana-Baylor Childrenï¿½s
Clinical Center for Excellence is recognized for its state-of-the-art collaborative work. It is reported to serve 1,200 HIV/AIDS infected children and over 200 families. This is a substantial achievement, but it still represents only a small fraction of the rapidly growing OVC population.
While it is clear that many people are already being helped by existing programs, it is equally evident that current efforts are too few, too small, and too uncoordinated to address the service needs of the full OVC population in Botswana.
Summary of Needs
Assessment & Screening of OVC
Botswana needs to assess its population of OVC for developmental and mental health problems. No scientific analysis is available concerning the status and specific service needs of the OVC population. Existing scientific literature predicts an elevated level of developmental and mental health problems for such a population, and reports from educators and other professionals in Botswana appear to confirm this. It is likely that the unspecified high rates of school performance problems reflect those students who already show fairly serious impairment. Those who show only mild impairment at this point in time may be less visible, but they are also at risk for progressively serious problems.
The proposed pilot project will assess the developmental and mental health status of OVC in Botswana in a scientific manner. Such a project will clarify the scope and nature of service needs for the larger OVC population, and it will promote the cost-effective development of a service system that matches the nature and scope of this national crisis. Once in place, such a social service system could also provide the nation of Botswana with an infrastructure for addressing future challenges
Development & Implementation of Services & Supports
Botswana needs to initiate the development of a cost-effective and culturally competent social service infrastructure. Early intervention and support for individuals who exhibit developmental and mental health problems have been shown to be more effective and efficient than later intervention. If not addressed in an adequate and timely manner, developmental and mental health problems of OVC could permanently rob Botswana of thousands of potentially productive citizens and burden the nation with a growing population of citizens who require life-long support and assistance. Small charitable programs and projects that rely mostly on volunteers are helpful, but the scope of the problem requires a national level infrastructure for coordination and oversight of services.
The in-home and community service model proposed for this project constitutes a logical and flexible service approach for OVC who are living in home settings. This approach is now widely used in the U.S., and it has proven to be a cost-effective model. The proposed project will pilot the provision of services in the areas of mental health, development, and wellness. It will then adjust and fine tune those services so that they can be used as models for expansion into services for the full OVC population.
Staff Training, Development & Support
A training program is needed to prepare a team of professionals and paraprofessionals in Botswana for implementation of the pilot study. Ideally an international team can work with a local university to establish a training Institute or Center that can then help to train a cadre of young professionals in the service models developed for the pilot.
Part of the role of this Institute will be to establish a program model for supporting staff and families who care for OVC, particularly with regard to loss and grieving. Professors and students could also serve an important role in developing local norms for assessment instruments and providing research, based on the substantial data that will be generated by the service system.
Oversight & Evaluation of Systems
A comprehensive oversight system is needed in order to provide leaders with the tools they need for making sound and cost effective decisions about services. The pilot project will include development of a database oversight system, which can be expanded to provide ongoing oversight and evaluation of the entire OVC service system.
Scope & Structure for Intervention
The pilot project targets 300 OVC. It is designed primarily to yield information about the status and service needs of the larger OVC population. However, as the project is implemented, it will also pilot and refine assessment procedures, service delivery models, staff training and support programs, and a database oversight system. Everything that is learned and developed during the pilot project will be used to help launch a national level service system that can address the needs of all OVC. Thus while the initial scope and structure is relatively small, it is designed to lay the foundation needed to expand the scope of service delivery from 300 OVC to 30,000 OVC in a matter of two to three years.
Required Supports for the Intervention
While the initial project is modest, the intended impact is broad and ambitious. Of utmost importance to the success of this project is the coordinated support and sustained effort of Batswana leadership. Active cooperation from all who directly or indirectly support OVC will need to come together in common purpose. Likewise, it is anticipated that both the pilot project team and the service delivery teams will need to work closely with schools, clinics and other existing structures and resources in order to implement culturally integrated and cost-effective service models. An international team of experts will work collaboratively with leadership in Botswana to design, conduct and evaluate the pilot project and to design the service models and infrastructure needed for expansion. At that point, it is anticipated that Botswana will be prepared to take the active lead, and the role of the international team will fade to one of ongoing support, collaborative oversight, and program evaluation.
Funding: From Charity to Autonomy
The funding source for the pilot project will need to be determined. However, the cost of the pilot program will be at or below $5 million and the actual source for funding will likely come from a variety of sources.
However, it is critical that sustainable funding be identified early in the process. This will be necessary both to ensure continuity of service for the 300 OVC in the project, as well as to facilitate a smooth expansion of services to the broader OVC population. It is anticipated that as early in the process as possible, the Government of Botswana will take on the responsibility of providing the majority of funding for of this project. This achieves the goal of autonomy in providing competent and compassionate services.
Purpose of the Pilot Project
Towards a National Vision
This project complies with Vision 2016 National Vision in many ways, including the following:
1. This project meets one of the objectives of national development, Social Justice, by developing services for those who are most in need.
2. As health and HIV/AIDS have become key issues for Botswana to deal with, the creation of a safety net to support those who are vulnerable is a crucial task. This project will address those issues by targeting orphans who are at serious risk for learning disability.
3. Other goals of for the project will include reducing the rate of infection for future generations of children, improving health practices of children in our programs, providing cultural activities that that foster respect for the natal culture for orphans who have been distanced from their own family traditions due to loss of family and tribal structures.
4. It will enhance the role of women by developing rites of passage programs that target little girls in a manner to increase their self esteem and self development. It will further the goals set in vision 2016 concerning the policy on women by partnering with a private company that is owned by a woman who is a citizen of Botswana.
Vulnerable Children and their Caretakers
In as much as the goal of this project is to develop and implement services that meet the needs of OVC, it will be very important to assess the needs from the perspective of the children and the families who care for them. This is a critical component to the development of culturally competent services.
Current Professionals and Staff
Professionals and staff who are already working with OVC are the best source of information about the strengths and weaknesses in their service systems where OVC are concerned. Their perspective is critical to the development and integration of new services in order to avoid redundancy and waste and to integrate the new services smoothly, effectively and efficiently with existing systems and resources.
Government and Taxpayers
As discussed above, funding of new services to the OVC will need to be sustained for some time to come. In a democracy, it is ultimately up to the citizens/taxpayers and their representative government to determine spending priorities. The proposed pilot project will assist decision makers by providing objective data about the status and service needs of OVC, the effectiveness of services, and the costs that are involved.
Timeframes for Implementation
The unresolved service needs of OVC constitute a pressing problem, and delays in the development of such services are costly in ways that are difficult to measure. It is recommended that the pilot project be initiated as soon as possible, so that the status of OVC and their unmet service needs can be clarified and addressed.
The Pilot Project
It is anticipated that the pilot project will last as little as 12 months and no more than 18 months. It will be helpful to coordinate initial implementation of this project with the school year cycle. In order to accomplish this, recruitment, training and set-up will need to precede implementation by about three months.
Long Term Structure
It is anticipated that recruitment, training and set-up for expansion of the project should begin about six months into the pilot program. This will allow for assessment data to be analyzed and service models to be refined.
As soon as sources of funding can be clarified, budget cycles for those sources will guide the timing of initiation of the project. The success of any project that is formulated to lead to long term structural change, continuity of funding and service is essential to successful implementation.
For Those In Need's Strategic Approach:
Project Mission & Goals
Project Mission Statement
For Those In Need, Inc. is dedicated to promoting the human rights and welfare of orphans and vulnerable children who have special needs.
For Those In Need, Inc. is a strength-based agency that is dedicated to the utilization of holistic treatment in children and adults with special needs who may also be confronting emotional, physical, financial, and spiritual distress. To this end:
ï¿½ We believe in the power of healing.
ï¿½ We believe in the power of family preservation, the power of the African extended family and the importance of maintaining the natal culture of families and communities that care for children with special needs.
ï¿½ We believe that each individual consists of mind, body, and soul. We also believe that the implementation of holistic treatment is vital if we seek to assist each individual in becoming empowered to effectively strengthen his/her spiritual harmony and promote inner psychological cohesion.
ï¿½ We believe that the practical and spiritual education of children with special needs should be dynamic as well as catalytic in the healing process.
ï¿½ We believe that behaviors can change and psychological traumas especially from the loss of a parent can be healed given an adequate amount of time, effective treatment plan, consistent follow-up, and proper clinical supervision.
For Those In Need, Inc, holds as fundamental the notion that by joining together as one, people with different talents and from different cultural backgrounds can bring the gift of love to help individuals and families heal themselves. To this end, For Those in Need, Inc. plans to phase in the following services to the citizens of Botswana:
1. Provide in home services with high levels of accountability and quality, which will be offered to all OVC, who are in need of psychiatric/behavioral services and their families without exception.
2. Commit to using proactive, holistic, clinically proven and practical approaches to supporting families.
3. Provide the following services:
- Assistive Technology equipment that provides support and training for persons with developmental disabilities who can benefit from those support services;
- A total sensory wellness center (similar to the Snoezelen Room model) that provides a therapeutic environment offering sensory stimulation and relaxation to persons with autism and other sensory deficits who could benefit from this kind of healing environment;
- Access to an animal petting program in Botswana where children could volunteer and who could be trained to assist the care taker staff as a part of an off site vocational program.
Project Goals & Objectives
Goal 1: To Reduce the Stigmas & Stereotypes facing
Children with Special Needs & Who are Orphans
a. Promote community acceptance and inclusion for children with special needs and provide more choices for persons with ID/DD regarding where he or she wishes to live.
b. Maintain active and open communication with family members and other natural supports of the person receiving services so as to further promote a successful enculturation into the community as the child matures.
c. Provide clinical, behavioral and psycho-social support services for individuals with special needs and children with intellectual disabilities who may have other co-occurring medical, physical, or mental health conditions that compromise community placement and inclusion.
Goal 2: Maintain Ongoing Communication with the Office on Orphans & Vulnerable Children
a. Conduct scheduled and unscheduled visits in the field by professional team members to ensure effective internal oversight of services and supports.
b. Conduct regular meetings with Case Management staff to facilitate open communication and give and receive feedback on client progress and service provision in the homes of the orphans.
c. Provide regular written reports on client progress and ISP goals that include updates on medications, medical appointments and visits, mental health status, leisure activities, visits with family and natural supports, religious activities and church attendance as relevant for the individual and progress made on treatment plan goals as appropriate.
d. Conduct a service survey on a quarterly basis with family members and CM staff to determine progress made by staff to provide positive clinical interventions for the consumer being served.
Goal 3: Enhance Staff Expertise
a. Provide initial one week training, prior to working with orphan in home,
b. Ensure that all home settings are clean, safe and appropriately maintained, and that all staff members are fully versed in universal precautions, food safety, CPR/First Aid, and non-aversive crisis management, and risk management planning.
c. Ensure that all crisis stabilization staff members have been intensively trained in developmental disability and mental health issues before being authorized to provide services to children in the community.
d. Ensure that in-home staff members are fully trained on the emergency/risk management plan for the individual prior to beginning work with children.
e. Conduct, at minimum, weekly one hour team meetings with staff providing ongoing clinical supervision to address pertinent client issues as they arise.
f. Conduct quarterly 4-hour training with behavioral consultants and experts in the intellectual and developmental disability fields offered in conjunction with the NatureCare Wellness Centre to assist staff in further developing skills in Case Management for the areas of development, nutrition, wellness self esteem, healthy lifestyles etc.
g. Provide psychiatric, behavioral, physical and medical consultation to staff and OVC being served, as needed.
Agency Background & Resources
Founder: E. Geronimo Robinson
Mr. Robinson is a Harvard University trained educator and clinician who has managed mental health agencies and residential programs for various local and municipal localities
in the Washington DC metro area for the past 25 years. In his last government position,
Mr. Robinson served as Director of the City of Alexandria Residential Programs. For 3 years, Geronimo Robinson directed the residential programs for the City of Alexandria composed of adults with serious mental illnesses, developmental disabilities including intellectual disabilities (mental retardation) and substance abuse disorders. As a City of Alexandria government employee, he was responsible for managing 66 residential programs and managed an $11 million budget.
In addition to serving as president and founder of Issac & Imani Inc., Mr. Robinson also co-owns two other companies. One company Mr. Robinson co-owns is a mental health agency called
Someone Cares Counseling Services, based in Southeastern Georgia. This company serves children and adolescents with mental health and substance abuse issues and provides in - home clinical services to individuals in 31 counties in the southeastern region of that state. Mr. Robinson is also a principal investor with Total Sensory Wellness Inc., a Spa and Wellness Center based in Waldorf, Maryland.
Issac and Imani Inc.s main goal is to create and manage programs that serve children and adults with special needs both in the US and developing countries. One objective of For Those In Need, Inc. will be to assist Southern African countries in making infrastructure changes to their social service delivery systems that will rehabilitate and serve OVC in underserved communities without over-burdening their fiscal integrity.
Mr. Robinson has authored several articles in the disabilities field and served for 8 years as a consulting editor for Mental Retardation, one of the two more highly regarded disability journals in the US and Europe. Mr. Robinson has had his articles republished in the Maisons des Sciences de LHomme, Le Portal du Reseau in 2005, and the Disability Studies Quarterly published by the Society for Disability Studies in the spring of 2003. One of his articles was also included in a list of Bibliographies on the Cultural Aspects of Disability, published by the Samuel Gridley Howe Library.
Mr. Robinson has spoken at numerous conferences in the US and abroad and has lead delegations of US elected officials and scholars to speak at international conferences in the Middle East and the South of France. In April 2000, Mr. Robinson was the keynote speaker at the Cypriot Association on Special Education International Conference in Nicosia, Cyprus. The delegation that accompanied Mr. Robinson conducted workshops and trainings for 2 days at the University of Cyprus and were the first Americans invited to lecture at this CASE Conference in the Middle East. In June 2001, Mr. Robinson was a keynote speaker at the National Mental Health Association Conference in Washington, DC.
Mr. Robinson served as peer reviewer for 2 years with the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research and participated in a planning process to create a Long Range Plan under taken by NIDRR in 1995 to meet the needs of the disability community and advance scientific knowledge in the US. From 2003 to 2005, Mr. Robinson served as a member of the Northern Virginia Regional Partnership Planning Project MR/MI Workgroup.
Mr. Robinson received an undergraduate degree in classical music from the University of Virginia, a masters degree in special education from the University of Virginia, and a post master's certificate of advanced study in education and counseling from Harvard University. While a student at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Mr. Robinson served as Interim President of the Black Student Union and also served as Vice President of the Student Association Committee for one year. Mr. Robinson was invited to speak twice between 1994 and 1997 at the Harvard Club, headquartered at the National Press Club Building in Washington, DC. Mr. Robinson discussed his career as a leader in the disabilities field and an advocate for children and families from underserved communities. In the spring of 2001, Mr. Robinson hosted a Harvard Career Day in collaboration with the United Negro College fund and several mental health and social service agencies representing various Northern Virginia and Maryland suburban jurisdictions. Students who had recently graduated from the Harvard Graduate School of Education in the mental health field were recruited by MH agencies that were attempting to fill various entry level positions.
OVC Advisory Board
The OVC Advisory Board will provide expertise and consultation to ensure that the project meets best practice standards as it assists Botswana in formulating services that are consistent with its Vision
2016. The following individuals have already committed to assisting with the project:
Sheryl White-Scott MD, FACP
Director, St. Charles Developmental
Member, The Presidentï¿½s Committee
on Mental Retardation
The Honorable Rosalyn R. Dance
Delegate for the 63rd District,
Member of the Virginia House of Delegates
Former Mayor, Petersburg, Virginia
Former Director, Central Virginia Training Center
Dr. Steven J. Taylor
Chief Editor, Mental Retardation
Director of Center on Human Policy,
Former Executive Director,
Golden Gate Regional Center,
City of San Francisco, CA
Serving Marin, San Mateo
& San Francisco Counties
Dr. Helen Phtiaka
Chair, Department of Special Education
University of Cyprus, Nicosia Cyprus
President, Cypriot Association for
Rev. Dr. Cecil Gray
Professor & Pastor, Northwood Appold United Methodist Church
Creator, Rites of Passage Program
Dean J. Bonney
Chair, Arlington Community Services Board, First Vice-Chairman of the VACSB (Virginia Association of Community Services Boards)
Board member of the Assistive
Technology Loan Fund Authority
(Appointed by Virginia Governor Mark Warner)
Former Executive Director,
The Denver Public School System
The Core Services Agency,
Prince Georgeï¿½s County, Maryland
Cheryl Whiting Wright
CEO, Rite Star Inc.
Vocational Rehabilitation & Employment,
The Department of Veteran Affairs,
The United States of America
George N. Rathbone
Former Clinical Services Director and Chief of Quality Assurance at the Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Administration, a $60 million agency serving individuals with disabilities. Mr. Rathbone has more than 25 years of experience as a manager, supervisor, teacher and clinician in the fields of disability, development, learning and behavior. He has published in national and international professional journals, and he currently serves as adjunct psychology professor at The Corcoran School of Art and Design in Washington DC.
Quality Assurance Specialist
The City of Alexandria Department of Mental Health,
Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services
3.3 Strategies: Towards Cultural Competence
Cultural competence may be best defined as a combination of sensitivity, attitudes, skills and knowledge which allows an individual or system to establish and maintain productive relationships with members of a different ethnic group or culture. However, it is important to note that there is a vast array of cultural factors that make it very difficult to accurately apply knowledge about a given ethnic group to individuals within that group. Socio-economic status and background, religious affiliation, citizenship status, education, language, generational affiliation, recognition of minority status, and the traditions, values and beliefs of the family of origin are among the dozens of factors which make it difficult to generalize from group knowledge to the individual. While knowledge and understanding of cultural background helps the service provider to identify and reduce barriers to service and to gain an understanding of the context of the individualï¿½s development and functioning, individuals from each culture still vary widely in their awareness and understanding of and their responses to that context. Thus For Those In Need recognizes that the processes of assessment, outreach and service provision for OVC in Botswana must be formulated in an individual or person-centered manner to be fully sensitive to cultural factors (Dean, A.V. et al, 1993).
Service providers working on behalf of For Those In Need, Inc. working in a multi ethnic environment such as the Republic of Botswana need to recognize the critical role of cultural competence in working with individuals and families that are from an ethnic group other than their own (Dodd et al, 1991; Carter, 1995, Hardy & Laszloffy, 1992). All staff hired by For Those In Need Inc. will make every effort to ensure that practical concepts and strategies are identified and used that will help in facilitating the development of culturally competent practices of service provision.
Partnering with Local Organizations
Botswana citizens will take over several key sections of the proposal including:
NatureCare Wellness Centre
NatureCare Wellness Centre is a 100% citizen owned company, which focuses
at a holistic approach to health. Established in 1998 in quest to empower Batswana
to perform at their peak physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually at work
Research Assistants will be recruited and hired who are members of the local academic
communities in Gabarone and other areas of the country. This will ensure that assessment
tools and clinical protocols created by For Those In Need, Inc. have input from Motswana clinicians
who have knowledge of local cultural norms. This input will be crucial in evaluating
longitudinal changes in adaptive behaviors of OVC, the relevancy of western empirical
qualitative studies and give feedback on the success of treatment plans and clinical
interventions for OVC in underserved communities.
Local University System
Partnerships will be sought, with the local university system, to create an institute within
the local university academic community to train local social service staff who would
then be able to take over all functions of the For Those In Need OVC project including:
ï¿½ Doing assessments and screening including medical assessments,
ï¿½ Performing Case Management duties to track and follow document the progress on
the health status, utilization patterns and outcomes measures for all 60,000 OVC
ï¿½ Perform PRP in home clinical support services for each OVC and his/her
ï¿½ Health and wellness training for all OVC.
Integrating with Existing Systems
For Those In Need, Inc., will be working in Partnership with NatureCare Wellness Centre, A Health and Wellness
Company in Botswana owned by a Botswana business person. Also, For Those In Need, Inc. will collaborate
with the Department of Social Services in Botswana, who will provide Case Management
and Social Service staff who will be trained by For Those In Need, Inc. to deliver these services to the
OVC and will provide services in conjunction with the Ministry of Education.
Development of Training & Support Structures
Staff Support & Development Team
This team consists of managers of the other teams led by a project consultant, and it
focuses on the support and development needs of the staff that will implement this
project. This is seen as a critical component for any staff that is itself facing personal
challenges with respect to illness, loss and grief. Those staff will include one full
time Staff Development Coordinator and one part time development specialist.
QA Structure / Ongoing Research & Development
Research assistants will conduct the following tasks:
All data collected through assessment and screening will be entered into a database by
RA s that will allow for tracking and trending of service needs and interventions at both
individual and systemic levels. Comparative review of data over time, along with a
formal survey process will be used to evaluate the impact of the project on the
delivery of services and supports.
Initiatives Short Term
In-home Psycho-Social Model
Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program (PRP) Model
Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program (PRP) Team
Composition of team:
Program Manager, Admin. Assistant, PRP FCP Workers
Role: To provide in home psychosocial supports and habilitation training for all youth identified as having special learning needs or behavioral supports.
1.) Intensive In-Home Treatment Services: This service offers an intensive, home based service for children and adults. This service is utilized to resolve major discord within the family dynamics. In this case, the discord is a result of trauma experienced by the child as a result of losing 2 parents who died because of Aids. The extended family is also experiencing trauma due to the loss of the relative as well as are trying to cope with the economic stress of taking in an additional child to feed because of the loss of parents. The goals are to support and try to provide family preservation as needed.
2.) Crisis Intervention Treatment: This service provides a treatment plan that provides adequate support to the individual and family along with practical or spiritual education to intervene during periods of disruption within the home the orphan is living in when behavioral problems occur as a consequence of trauma experienced by the orphan.
3.) Family Assessments: Family Assessments will be conducted at each home to give the PRP worker a full picture of who in the home provides support to the orphan so that assessment tools are utilized to examine the family dynamics and to assist in making the appropriate recommendations to aid the family in coping with the loss of the parents.
4.) Home Evaluation: An extensive evaluation of the family home will be conducted to promote the safety issues that are mandatory for the childï¿½s protection.
5.) Parent Aide: This service increases parental knowledge through education and the utilization of assessment tools that are chosen to empower parents and or care takers of the orphans.
6.) Case Management: Services provide transportation and family preservation as the vendor prescribes in the referral.
The role of the in home PRP staff will include but not be limited to:
ï¿½ Providing direct therapeutic intervention to both the youth and the family
ï¿½ Coaching, role-modeling and role-playing
ï¿½ Concentrating on building individual skills and family strengths
ï¿½ Providing formal and informal linkages to health and wellness trainings for all OVC in these programs as well as providing ongoing case management and data collection on each OVC to track progress made on treatment goals and objectives
ï¿½ PRP staff will receive ongoing clinical supervision and training on psychiatric rehabilitation and goal oriented family group and individual therapy.
Most standardized assessment instruments used by social service disciplines are not standardized on vulnerable children in Botswana. Caution must be exercised in administration, scoring and interpretation of any such instruments, for the risks associated with mis-measurement can be substantial.
Initially the experiences and reports of the children, the people who care for them, and the professionals who work with them may be the most valid and reliable source of data.
Until local norms can be developed for standardized assessment tools, such tools will be supplemented with formal observations, interviews, surveys, and/or other qualitative measures.
For this project, each child initially will be medically screened and assessed with an adaptive behavior scale that will be purchased in bulk and brought with the team to Botswana. The instrument that our team will use will yield assessment of status in functional areas including:
Independent Functioning, Physical Development, Economic Activity, Language
Development, Numbers and Time, Prevocational/Vocational Activity, Self-Direction,
Responsibility, and Socialization. It will also assesses behavioral functioning and identify
areas of possible developmental delay.
Based on the initial screening, a determination will be made for each child as to whether a more in depth assessment is warranted, and in which disciplines.
Existing service related resources will be identified, personnel will be recruited and trained, and new
resources will be developed to address critical concerns and national priorities for all OVC in all identified areas of need, including:
Health & Wellness
Activities of Daily Living
Cognitive and Academic Development
Health & Wellness Team
Composition of team: Program Director of NatureCare Wellness Centre
Two program assistants
A Team of Botswana Based Physicians who will oversee the medical screening and
referral process for each child enrolled in the program.
Medical screening and referral, assessment and development of needed services, referral to allied health practitioners, health and wellness education, development and oversight of health and wellness services and wellness curricula for the children that will be served.
NATURECARE WELLNESS CENTRE is a 100% citizen owned company, which focuses at a holistic approach to health. It was established in 1998 in a quest to empower Batswana to perform at their peak physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually at work and elsewhere.
NatureCare offers a wide range of services, among others Training of Peer Educators, Counselors, Wellness Consultancy, designs workshops and Trainings to promote a holistic approach to health -Wellness.
In our view, Wellness is not just the absence of disease; it is also a state of mind, it encompasses totality of a being ï¿½ the body, the mind and the soul. The approach is quite transformational as it develops and promotes paradigm shifts in self-management, self-responsibility and self-actualization.
NatureCare has designed and facilitated a number of workshops for traumatized youth offering them emotional healing and psycho ï¿½social support.
Mental and Emotional Wellness is one of NatureCareï¿½s strong points, designing and offering corporate and public seminars on ï¿½ Behaviour Change, Stress Management, Emotional Healing, Healing the wounded Healerï¿½ to name but a few.
In June 04 2004, NatureCare coordinated a successful Wellness Seminar (targeting Permanent Secretaries, CEOs, Directors, Improvement Coordinating Officers, Human Resources, AIDS Coordinators etc) on ï¿½The Benefits of Developing Workplace Wellness Programmes in the Private and Public Sectorsï¿½. Workplace Wellness Programmes are made up of activities that focus on employee health promotion, disease prevention, employee satisfaction, happiness and work effectiveness.
NatureCare Wellness Centre has a pool of diverse healthcare professionals focusing on championing paradigm shifts from conventional thinking and attitudes commonly encountered to pro-activeness. This multidisciplinary composition is NatureCareï¿½s strongest point. It features medical, nutritional, psychological, counseling, and life strategy expertise.
NatureCare has done consultancy and training for the following:
Training of Peer Educators Air Botswana
Emotional Healing and Self Love Mabogo Dinku
Basic Counselling Debswana
Life skills Mabogo Dinku
Stress Management in relation to HIV/AIDS DPSM
Stress Management in relation to HIV/AIDS Ministry of Mineral Energy and Water Resources
Personal Transformation Botswana Development Corporation
Workshop on Holistic approach to HIV/AIDS Ministry of Education, Department of Career Guidance and Counseling
Training on Peer Education and Wellness Debswana Jwaneng Mine
Basic Counseling Course Ministry of Agriculture Senior Managers
HIV and Wellness Debswana Orapa mine
Wellness and Productivity Debwana Jwaneng Mine
Peer Education Office of the Ombudsman
HIV and Wellness Impala Platinum Mine
Peer Education National Development Bank
Stress Management and Personal Transformation For Senior Managers Debswana Jwaneng Mine
Wellness at the workplace Office of the Ombudsman
Wellness and Productivity Dept. of Water Affairs
Wellness Peer Educators BEDIA
Wellness and HIV/AIDS NACA
Positive Mental Attitude Metropolitan Botswana
Sally Pillar's Profile:
Ms. Pillar is a Holistic Healer, trained as a Nutritional Therapist and a trainer on achieving Positive Mental Attitude/Counselor in Oxford, England and Cape Town, South Africa. She conscientises people on health issues and motivates them to achieve total wellness, especially on the mind and body connection. She also promotes informed positive thinking and practical solutions by all societal sectors in dealing with HIV and AIDS, other life threatening diseases, trauma, rape and grief.
Ms. Pillar is a certified trainer on the art of "Self Healing" a psychological therapy which empowers individuals to take charge of their lives and to derive spiritual growth from personal traumas through proactive action and through creating a positive outlook.
She shares sentiments that a lot of people's mental and physical problems stem from psychological and mental abuse, real or imagined at different stages of childhood. She specialized on "Healing the Inner Child", which enables her to work with people who had traumatic childhoods, providing for them stepping- stones as a pathway to self discovery. It is a subject Ms. Pillar is very passionate about having had a difficult childhood herself. After healing her life, she was eager to heal those still with stifled creativity due to negative life experiences. She is qualified as a teacher in "Paradigm Trainings" specializing with teaching children with abusive backgrounds.
As a nutritionist, Ms. Pillar's objective is to show the relationship between nutrition and health. Within that she also wishes to reveal the high cost of poor nutrition on individuals' health and on the treasury of companies. This objective is served well by her formal education in food and nutrition, in nutritional therapy, by her professional experience as the catering manager of Botswana Diamond Valuing Company (1985 - 1990). It is also enhanced by her work as managing director of NatureCare Marketing Pty Ltd, a company which concerns itself with adjunctive curative and preventive life components such as inner body detoxification, and optimal health and diet.
In October 1999, Ms. Pillar coordinated the 1st National Conference on HIV and Nutrition with her company NatureCare being the main sponsor.
Ms. Pillar was instrumental in designing an immune boosting sorghum-based precooked cereal which is now being consumed in some Botswana government institutions. Efforts are underway to have this precooked cereal prescribed for immune compromised people in Botswana.
Finally, Ms. Pillar's altruism comes through clearly in her program "Mind, Body and Soul" which airs weekly on Radio Botswana 2. This program tackles physical, mental and spiritual health issues and provides a valuable information source for the general listener who would otherwise be uninformed on the relevant and specific issues. Her future aim is to promote the use of local and home-grown food products for enhanced wellness in Botswana. She also wishes to continue addressing different forums on health related issues, and to train Home Based Care trainers throughout the country on nutrition and hygiene. Her expertise will also be highly valued and utilized by the newly formed Tsa Botsogo Total Wellness group where she will serve as a workshop moderator and marketing manager. This group's major concern is to team up with BONEPWA and its support groups to provide a healthier, more responsible, more proactive and fuller life for PLWA in Botswana. Their methods will be the impartation of education on different PLWA related issues and teaching self-responsibility as the ultimate curb to the spread of HIV and its complications.
CONTACT INFORMATION: telephone: 3900145 / 900623
mobile : 72559680
email : firstname.lastname@example.org
The pilot project will focus on 300 to 600 orphans who are between the ages of 6 and
18 and who are attending school. This should include a subset of at least 100 children who have also been identified by the school system as having special learning needs or behavioral concerns or other evidence of disability. The pilot is expected to be completed within 12 ï¿½ 18 months.
The pilot project is viewed as essential to establishing a scientific and practical foundation upon which to build the broader infrastructure of services to all OVC. It will provide the decision makers with valid data that can be extrapolated to the broader population to promote sound and effective decisions in the allocation and prioritization of services and resources. The pilot program will also lay the groundwork for a data based oversight system that can be expanded to allow for effective data analysis at an individual, local and systems level.
INITIATIVES Long term
Extending The Models
Well before the pilot program is completed, rapid expansion of a workforce trained on appropriate assessment and service models will be under way, as will a comprehensive screening of the entire OVC population. The concrete service models derived from the pilot will be extended to the entire OVC population. It may prove useful to adapt and extend them also into other special need populations not targeted by this program.
The PRP model can be revised to fit the needs of OVC in other developing countries
in West and East Africa as well. Many countries in and outside of the African continent
could benefit from implementing a comprehensive models that addresses the mental
health and psychosocial needs of children who have been traumatized by the loss of
both parents due to Aids or war or both.
Building National Systems:
Several new or strengthened national systems will result from this project, including:
A cost effective, culturally tailored national delivery system for psychosocial and Wellness services that meets the needs of vulnerable citizens while strengthening the national service sector economy.
A national data based oversight system to track and document the progress of the OVC in a manner that provides transparency, promotes sound decision-making, yields cost-effective services, and serves as a foundation for needed research.
Practical linkage with the University to create a world-leading Institute or Center that can translate academic expertise into practical application as it trains new staff to provide CM services, clinical assessment, Wellness and PRP services those who will benefit most.
The identification, assessment and provision of individual support plans (ISPs) for a generation of OVC with special needs.
As mentioned above, For Those In Need, Inc. will seek to partner with the Botswana Department of Social
Services, the University of Botswana in Gabarone, and NatureCare Wellness Centre, a locally
owned Health and Wellness Company. For Those In Need, Inc. will also seek to partner and/or collaborate with schools, churches and other organizations that are involved with serving the OVC.
For Those In Need Strategic Goals & Performance Measures:
Goal 1: Assure and maintain level of satisfaction with families served by the OVC project.
a. Family satisfaction surveys (OVC Questionnaires) will be created during the initial
phase of the pilot program and distributed to all families receiving services,
b. OVC Questionnaires will be filled out by 80% of families/caregivers, 90% of
respondents will indicate that the OVC program has had a positive effect on the family
and has improved the functioning of the OVC in their household,
c. Documentation will be included in each treatment to document participation
by OVC in creation and implementation of ISP,
d. Documentation will be included in ISP indicating preferences and participation
of family in creation and implementation of ISP,
Goal 2: Screen 100% of the OVC in project, and provide in-depth assessment as needed.
a. Each OVC identified as needing services will be assessed, given a medical
evaluation, given a developmental and mental health assessment to develop
an individual support plan (ISP) that meets the needs of the individual.
b. Success of treatment to be determined by 80 % of goals and objectives
completed on ISP.
Goal 3: Ensure that all OVC staff members have skills needed for their positions to maintain
a highly skilled, motivated and adaptable workforce.
a. All employees will participate in and complete a 6 week workshop as part of the Institute or Center that will be created in collaboration with local Botswana educational institutions.
b. Evaluations of training will be conducted through participant feedback.
Goal 4: Assure cost effectiveness of OVC services.
a. A comprehensive data-based oversight system will be developed and
implemented to track, trend and analyze individual and congregate data.
b. A cost analysis will be preformed for each phase and activity of the project to
ensure that cost effective measures are implemented and to ensure that financial
integrity of the project is being maintained.
Quality Assurance Goals:
QA staff will analyze data and publish a report as indicated on the below graph showing:
Success of completing goals in strategic plan,
Results of family satisfaction surveys,
Employee success rate in completing 6 week OVC training program.
Percentage of OVC requiring different services
Summary and analysis of all collected data
Summary and analysis of resources and challenges
Recommendations to improve services, minimize cost, address barriers, etc.
National Outcomes Measures:
This project requires a sequence of five separate but overlapping phases of activity that will result in the following national outcomes:
Training: The Local Government DSS will be trained by For Those In Need staff to recruit and develop training of the project teams, in a manner that results in an infrastructure for staff recruitment and training.
Screening: All OVC will be screened for developmental, mental health and medical concerns, resulting in a national model and infrastructure for screening.
In-Depth Assessment: All pilot participants, and up to 3,000 non-pilot OVC who screen positive for developmental, mental health and medical issues will receive in-depth assessment for identified concerns within the first 12 -18 months. This will result in a national infrastructure for conducting assessment.
Individual Plans: All individuals identified through in-depth assessment as having unmet needs with regard to development, mental health or health concerns will receive individual support plans that specify service goals and interventions and track individual progress.
Model Services: Botswana will develop and implement a services model system within the first year of the pilot program that can be used for the reminder of the years of the project before the DSS staff assume full responsibility over the main phases of service. This will result in a comprehensive infrastructure for providing effective and culturally competent services.
Oversight: Botswana will develop and monitor a national database for OVC and a model program evaluation process. This will be documented in the annual reports and used on an ongoing basis to evaluate the effectiveness of the program.
Proposed Timelines for Pilot
Recruitment and Training Phase
Screening & Assessment
Establish Service Delivery
Program Analysis and Refinement
Prepare Data Base &
Begin data entry
Establish Data Tracking
Set Up Screening for
Recruitment and Training for
All OVC project
Four Year Timeline
STAFF PHASE OUT
I would like to thank the following persons for their contribution
to the creation and development of this proposal:
George Rathbone co-authored the OVC proposal and did the research necessary to
make this proposal a clinically astute and policy driven document.
Sally Pillar provided me with the initial information, scope of the HIV/Aids problem
in her country and coordinated meetings between myself and key government officials
in Botswana to make the idea of doing a project of this magnitude a viable one.
Julius Williams has provided technical support and has acted as a
consultant and mentor to me while I tried to figure out the logistical
details of how to implement a project of this kind.
Andre Hawkins listened to my vision and then designed the booklet
form in such a manner as to visualize and highlight the uniqueness
and special qualities of this proposal.
Thanks to Cheryl Whiting Wright for helping me conceptualize
the project and then put it down on paper.
Thanks to Maya Robinson, my daughter, who createed this website.
For helping to design a project which has the potential to support thousands
of orphans in Botswana, I wish each of you peace, blessings and wellness.
My thanks to everyone involved.
Mental Retardation Journal
A Journal of Policy, Practices, and Perspectives Published by The American Association on Mental Retardation
American Association on Mental Retardation
E. Geronimo Robinson. We all know, or have heard sometime in our lives, about the Black American Civil Rights movement. American media and mainstream ...
American Association on Mental Retardation
Impact of Race, Poverty, and Ethnicity on Services for Persons With Mental Disabilities: Call for Cultural Competence E. Geronimo Robinson and George N. ...
American Association on Mental Retardation
Systematic Distortion of Statistics as a Result of Racism and its Effect on the Human Services System E. Geronimo Robinson ...
American Association on Mental Retardation
Revue de Sommaires
Quilomboos, black nationalism, and self-determination for persons with intellectual disabilities: A psychohistorical perspective ; E. Geronimo ROBINSON ...in French
Cultural Aspects of Disability